Betaine, a bodybuilding supplement, which has been shown in compact research to have an anabolic impact on muscle tissue, may perhaps also enable to strengthen bones. This is recommended by an in-vitro study that Italian researchers at the San Raffaele Scientific Institute published in the Journal of Translational Medicine.
The Italians exposed human osteoblasts – the bone cells that make new bone tissue – in test tubes to 10 millimoles of betaine. That is the equivalent of a human taking six g betaine. [J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1):34-8.]
Administering betaine boosted the osteoblasts’ calcium uptake. In the figure beneath, every single line represents the uptake of calcium by a various group of cells, measured in separate experiments.
Six hours just after exposing the osteoblasts to betaine the cells have been creating additional of the bone-developing proteins runt-associated transcription element two [RUNX2], osteoblast-precise transcription element Osterix [OSX], bone sialoprotein [BSP] and bone sialoprotein 1 [OPN].
How betaine activated the bone cells’ anabolic machinery is shown beneath: by receiving the osteoblasts to create additional IGF-1. The improved production is the consequence of activating the ERK/MAPK pathway, according to the Italians. No matter if this is certainly the case, we wonder. But by no means thoughts: we are not the professionals.
“The present study has demonstrated that betaine exerts a stimulatory impact on human osteoblast by acting on synergic pathways major to osteogenic gene activation and production of bone matrix proteins,” the researchers wrote.
“This study has a translational worth in opening the viewpoint that betaine supplementation, by acting on bone and muscle cells by means of widespread pathways, may be successful in counteracting bone and muscle deterioration in the elderly, specifically in these people with an age-associated proinflammatory state (i.e. obese and diabetic subjects).””
“Betaine could represent an critical nutraceutical method in stopping the loss of muscle and bone with disuse, aging and illness, and in supporting therapies for age-associated sarcopenia and osteoporosis, the significant determinants of senile frailty and associated mortality.”
Betaine promotes cell differentiation of human osteoblasts in key culture
Betaine (BET), a element of numerous foods, is an important osmolyte and a supply of methyl groups it also shows an antioxidant activity. Additionally, BET stimulates muscle differentiation by way of insulin like development element I (IGF-I). The processes of myogenesis and osteogenesis involve widespread mechanisms with skeletal muscle cells and osteoblasts sharing the identical precursor. For that reason, we have hypothesized that BET may be successful on osteoblast cell differentiation.
The impact of BET was tested in human osteoblasts (hObs) derived from trabecular bone samples obtained from waste material of orthopedic surgery. Cells have been treated with 10 mM BET at five, 15, 60 min and three, six and 24 h. The doable effects of BET on hObs differentiation have been evaluated by genuine time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence evaluation. Calcium imaging was utilized to monitor intracellular calcium alterations.
Genuine time PCR benefits showed that BET stimulated drastically the expression of RUNX2, osterix, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin. Western blot and immunofluorescence confirmed BET stimulation of osteopontin protein synthesis. BET stimulated ERK signaling, crucial pathway involved in osteoblastogenesis and calcium signaling. BET induced a rise of intracellular calcium by indicates of the calcium ions influx from the extracellular milieu by means of the L-variety calcium channels and CaMKII signaling activation. A important rise in IGF-I mRNA at three and six h and a important boost of IGF-I protein at six and 24 h just after BET stimulus was detected. Additionally, BET was in a position to boost drastically each SOD2 gene expression and protein content material.
Our study showed that 3 signaling pathways, i.e. cytosolic calcium influx, ERK activation and IGF-I production, are enhanced by BET in human osteoblasts. These pathways could have synergistic effects on osteogenic gene expression and protein synthesis, therefore potentially major to enhanced bone formation. Taken with each other, these benefits recommend that BET could be a promising nutraceutical therapeutic agent in the technique to counteract the concomitant and interacting effect of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, i.e. the significant determinants of senile frailty and associated mortality.